The British idealist historian, Robin G. Collingwood, wrote in his landmark work The Idea of History (1926) that: History is a kind of research or inquiry … What kind of things does history find out? I answer, res gestae: actions of human beings that have been done in the past … History proceeds by the interpretation of evidence: where evidence is a collective name for things which singly called documents, and a document is a thing existing here and now, of such a kind that the historian, by thinking about it, can get answers to the questions he asks about past events (9-10). What role should objectivity, subjectivity, and bias play in the research process Collingwood describes? How do they influence the interpretations of evidence? How do they influence historians asking and answering questions about the past? In an essay, explain your positions on these questions in a detailed answer that incorporates readings from the following texts … Jeremy D. Popkin, From Herodotus to H-Net: The Story of Historiography(Oxford University Press, 2016). Anna Green and Kathleen Troup, eds., The Houses of History: A Critical Reader in Twentieth-Century History and Theory (Manchester University Press,1999). Laura Lee Downs, Writing Gender History(2nded., London: Bloomsbury, 2010). Robert Darnton, The Great Cat Massacre and Other Episodes of French Cultural History(rep. ed., New York: Basic Books,2009). Walter Goffart, Narrators of Barbarian History, A.D. 550 -800(University of Notre Dame Press, 2005). Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism(rev. ed., New York: Penguin, 2016). Lynn Hunt, Writing History in the Global Era (New York: W. W. Norton, 2015). Dipesh Chakrabarty, Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference (Princeton University Press, 2000). Peter Novick, That Noble Dream: The “Objectivity Question” and the American Historical Profession(New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
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