Read from: The Age of Reconnaissance, J. H. Parry

    Chapter 8 (131-145)
    Chapter 9 (146-162)
    Chapter 12 (190-206)
    Chapter 19 (303-319)

Write a five to seven page paper about the voyages of the Age of Discovery and the consequences of them for colonialism and empire. This essay needs to address the following questions:

From Chapter 8:

    What was the exploration of the West African coast a preliminary of?
    What is the Treaty of Alcaovas? What were the terms of the agreement?
    Who is Bartolomeu Dias? Why is he significant?
    Why wasnt Dias voyage immediately followed up with another voyage around Africa?

From Chapter 9:

    How did Columbus come to the conclusion that he could reach Asia from Europe?
    On Columbus return, why did the Spanish monarchs turn to the pope for help?
    What did the pope do?
    What was Portugals response? What did John II achieve?
    What was the immediate objective of Columbus second voyage?
    Did Columbus believe he landed in Asia? Did other Europeans also believe this?
    Who is John Cabot? Why is he significant?
    Who is Amerigo Vespucci? Why is he significant?
    Who is Ferdinand Magellan? Why is he significant? What was his goal? What country did he sail for?
    What is the Treaty of Zaragoza (1529)?
    What was the result of the discovery of Magellans strait?

From Chapter 12:

    How were the Portuguese able to dominate the eastern trade routes for a hundred years?
    Who was Sir Francis Drake? Briefly describe his mission and voyage.
    How were the Dutch able to challenge the Portuguese?
    Who is Jan Pieterszoon Coen? Why is he significant?
    Why did the Dutch set up a colony at the Cape in South Africa (1652)?

From Chapter 19:

    What problem did the European empires overseas create?
    In the sixteenth century, which country led the rest of Europe in law, government, and jurisprudence?
    On what did the Spanish crown officially base its right to rule the Indies?
    What is the doctrine of universal papal dominion? Was it universally accepted? What was the objection to it?
    Who is Francisco de Vitoria? What was his argument concerning war and conquest?
    Bartolome de las Casas? What did he argue in regard to the rights of the Indians? What authority did he argue that the Pope had? What does he say are the duties of kings?
    Who is Juan Gins de Seplveda? What was his argument about just war and conquest? How was his work received?
    What happened at Valladolid (1550)? Did it have any impact of the Spanish Crown?
    Who you do agree with las Casas or Seplveda? Why?


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