Describe the format and contents of common medical documents.

Describe the format and contents of common medical documents.

15 – 20 slides using medical terminology on any of these topics •An episode of a medical drama •A medical documentary •A patient education documentary •A training presentation for new hires •An annual report to the board concerning each medical department’s highlights, challenges, and needs

Associate Level Material

Final Project Requirements

 

Final Project Overview and Timeline

 

Final Project Overview

 

The final project assesses your ability to use medical terminology in the context of a health care setting. You will prepare a 15- to 20-slide multimedia presentation storyboarding an episode of a medical drama, documentary, or show of your own creation. Incorporate audio, video, or images into your presentation. Be sure to cite any sources for the media pieces. Be conscious of your file size and limit any audio and video pieces to 60 seconds or shorter. Focus your presentation on patient concerns, medical language, and body systems. The presentation should include at least 45 medical words—three words from each chapter—and detailed speaker’s notes.

Associate Level Material

Final Project Requirements

 

Final Project Overview and Timeline

 

Final Project Overview

 

The final project assesses your ability to use medical terminology in the context of a health care setting. You will prepare a 15- to 20-slide multimedia presentation storyboarding an episode of a medical drama, documentary, or show of your own creation. Incorporate audio, video, or images into your presentation. Be sure to cite any sources for the media pieces. Be conscious of your file size and limit any audio and video pieces to 60 seconds or shorter. Focus your presentation on patient concerns, medical language, and body systems. The presentation should include at least 45 medical words—three words from each chapter—and detailed speaker’s notes.

 ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Measure Your Progress: Learning Objectives After you study this chapter, you should be able to 1. Identify the five skills of medical language communication. 2. Describe the origins of medical language. 3. Recognize common Latin and Greek singular nouns and form their plurals. 4. Describe characteristics of combining forms, suffixes, and prefixes. 5. Give the medical meaning of common word parts. 6. Build medical words from word parts and divide medical words into word parts. 7. Spell and pronounce common medical words. 8. Describe the format and contents of common medical documents. 9. Dive deeper into the structure of medical language by reviewing the activities at the end of this chapter and online at Medical Terminology Interactive. ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. The Structure of Medical Language | Chapter 1 5 Welcome to Medical Language You are about to begin the study of medical language. This will involve time and effort on your part. But what can you expect in return? What benefits come from learning medical language? To find out, read Scenario 1 (that follows) and contrast it with Scenario 2. Scenario 1 Imagine that you just made an important decision that will affect the rest of your life: You decided to move to a foreign country. You are excited and anxious to get going! When you arrive, you are thrilled to be in this new, exotic environment. It is fascinating to you! There are so many new sights and sounds. You want to embrace this new culture and become part of it, but your first attempts at interacting are awkward because you do not know the language. You can’t seem to make anyone understand you. All around you, people are engaged in interesting activities and important conversations, but you can’t join in because you can’t understand them. You feel confused and helpless. Your future in this country now seems uncertain, and you wonder if you will ever be anything more than just a spectator here. What went wrong? Scenario 2 Imagine that you just made an important decision that will affect the rest of your life: You decided to pursue a career in the healthcare field. You are excited and anxious to get going! When you walk into a physician’s office, clinic, or hospital, you are thrilled to be in this new, fast-paced, exotic environment. It is fascinating to you! There are so many new sights and sounds. You want to embrace the medical culture and become part of it. Your first attempts at interacting with other healthcare professionals are successful because you know medical language. Immediately, you are immersed in interesting medical activities and important conversations, and you understand what is going on. You feel excited and empowered! Your future in the healthcare field is certain because you took the time to study medical language. Healthcare professionals know that there is no substitute for a thorough, working knowledge of medical language (see Figure 1-1 ■). Medical language is the language of the healthcare profession, and medical words are the tools of the trade! Learning medical language is your key to a successful career in the healthcare field. Figure 1-1 ■ Medical language. This paramedic is using medical language to communicate with healthcare professionals in the emergency department and describe the condition of a patient in the ambulance. How important do you think it is for this paramedic to have a thorough, working knowledge of medical language? ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. 6 Chapter 1 | The Structure of Medical Language Medical Language and Communication Communication in any language consists of five language skills. These same skills apply to medical language. You need to master all five skills in order to communicate on the job with other healthcare professionals (see Figure 1-2 ■). communication (koh-MYOO-nih-KAY-shun) communicat/o- impart; transmit -ion action; condition medical (MED-ih-kal) medic/o- physician; medicine -al pertaining to language (LANG-gwij) 1. Reading 2. Listening These skills involve receiving medical language. This is similar to the input coming into a computer. • You read medical words. Each chapter in this book contains many medical words. • You read actual medical reports in the Chapter Review Exercises. • You listen to your course instructor speak medical language. • You listen to exercises with actual physicians speaking medical language excerpts from medical reports. 3. Thinking, analyzing, and understanding This skill involves processing medical language. This is similar to the processing function of a computer. • You analyze medical words by dividing them into word parts. • You recall the medical meaning of word parts. • You build medical words from word parts. • You complete exercises to test your understanding of medical language. • You read actual medical reports and answer critical thinking questions. • You correlate common English words with their medical equivalents. 4. Writing (or typing) and spelling 5. Speaking and pronouncing These skills involve relaying medical language. This is similar to output coming from a computer. • You write or type a medical word and spell it correctly. • You spell the plural and adjective forms of medical words. • You identify misspelled medical words in a paragraph. • You speak medical words, using the “see-and-say” pronunciation guides to practice pronouncing them correctly. • You read a medical word and identify the primary accented syllable. • You read the “see-and-say” pronunciation, identify the medical word, and then spell the word correctly. Figure 1-2 ■ Medical language communication. These healthcare professionals are using all five medical language skills in order to communicate successfully. WORD BUILDING ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. The Structure of Medical Language | Chapter 1 7 etymology (ET-ih-MAWL-oh-jee) etym/o- word origin -logy the study of These skills are critical in the communication of medical language. This book Medical Language helps you develop all five skills by giving you many opportunities to practice until you have mastered all of them. Let’s begin the study of medical language by looking at how medical language began. The Beginning of Medical Language Etymology is the study of word origins. In medical language, many words have come from other languages, particularly from Latin and Greek. Why? Because in ancient times both the Romans and the Greeks advanced the study and practice of medicine. They named anatomical structures, diseases, and treatments in their own languages, and these Latin and Greek words remain a part of medical language today. You’ll be surprised to see how many of these words are familiar to you. Word Alert Some medical words are identical to Latin and Greek words from centuries ago. Medical Word Language of Origin nucleus Latin nucleus pelvis Latin pelvis sinus Latin sinus paranoia Greek paranoia thorax Greek thorax Some medical words are similar (but not identical) to Latin and Greek words. Medical Word Language of Origin artery Latin arteria muscle Latin musculus vein Latin vena phobia Greek phobos sperm Greek sperma Some medical words are similar to words from older versions of the English, Dutch, and French languages. Medical Word Language of Origin bladder English blaedre heart English heorte drug Dutch droog physician French physicien WORD BUILDING This It’s Greek to Me feature appears in each chapter. It lists many of the combining forms, their language of origin, and the medical words in which they were used in that chapter. It’s Greek to Me! Did you notice that some words have two different combining forms? Combining forms from both Greek and Latin languages remain a part of medical language today. ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8 Chapter 1 | The Structure of Medical Language Latin Singular and Plural Nouns and Pronunciations When a Latin singular noun ends in –a, form the plural by changing –a to –ae. Singular Pronunciation Plural Pronunciation areola (ah-REE-oh-lah) areolae (ah-REE-oh-lee) bursa (BER-sah) bursae (BER-see) conjunctiva (CON-junk-TY-vah) conjunctivae (CON-junk-TY-vee) patella (pah-TEL-ah) patellae (pah-TEL-ee) petechia (peh-TEE-kee-ah) petechiae (peh-TEE-kee-ee) ruga (ROO-gah) rugae (ROO-gee) scapula (SKAP-yoo-lah) scapulae (SKAP-yoo-lee) sclera (SKLEER-ah) sclerae (SKLEER-ee) vena (VEE-nah) venae (VEE-nee) vertebra (VER-teh-brah) vertebrae (VER-teh-bree) When a Latin singular noun ends in –us, form the plural by changing –us to –i. (Note: Exceptions to this rule are the Latin words fetus, virus, and sinus, whose plural forms are the English-type plurals of fetuses, viruses, and sinuses.) alveolus (al-VEE-oh-lus) alveoli (al-VEE-oh-lie) bronchus (BRONG-kus) bronchi (BRONG-kigh) calculus (KAL-kyoo-lus) calculi (KAL-kyoo-lie) decubitus (dee-KYOO-bih-tus) decubiti (dee-KYOO-bih-tie) glomerulus (gloh-MAIR-yoo-lus) glomeruli (gloh-MAIR-yoo-lie) gyrus (JY-rus) gyri (JY-rye) nucleus (NOO-klee-us) nuclei (NOO-klee-eye) sulcus (SUL-kus) sulci (SUL-sigh) thrombus (THRAWM-bus) thrombi (THRAWM-by) villus (VIL-us) villi (VIL-eye) When a Latin singular noun ends in –um, form the plural by changing –um to –a. atrium (AA-tree-um) atria (AA-tree-ah) bacterium (bak-TEER-ee-um) bacteria (bak-TEER-ee-ah) diverticulum (DY-ver-TIK-yoo-lum) diverticula (DY-ver-TIK-yoo-lah) haustrum (HAW-strum) haustra (HAW-strah) hilum (HY-lum) hila (HY-lah) labium (LAY-bee-um) labia (LAY-bee-ah) ovum (OH-vum) ova (OH-vah) Medical Word Singular and Plural Nouns The Latin and Greek languages are the main sources of medical words. These languages had rules that told how to form plural nouns and how to pronounce singular and plural nouns; those rules still apply today. Note: When a Latin or Greek word is used in a chapter, there will be a note there to remind you of those rules. Here are some common Latin and Greek singular and plural nouns and their pronunciations. ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. The Structure of Medical Language | Chapter 1 9 Singular Pronunciation Plural Pronunciation When a Latin singular noun ends in –is, form the plural by changing –is to –es. diagnosis (DY-ag-NOH-sis) diagnoses (DY-ag-NOH-seez) testis (TES-tis) testes (TES-teez) When a Latin singular noun ends in –ex, form the plural by changing –ex to –ices. apex (AA-peks) apices (AA-pih-seez) cortex (KOR-teks) cortices (KOR-tih-seez) index (IN-deks) indices (IN-dih-seez) When a Latin singular noun ends in –ix, form the plural by changing –ix to –ices. calix (KAY-liks) calices (KAL-ih-seez) helix (HEE-liks) helices (HEE-lih-seez) Greek Singular and Plural Nouns and Pronunciations When a Greek singular noun ends in –is, form the plural by changing –is to –ides. epididymis (EP-ih-DID-ih-mis) epididymides (EP-ih-dih-DIM-ih-deez) iris (EYE-ris) irides (IHR-ih-deez) When a Greek singular noun ends in –nx, form the plural by changing –nx to –nges. phalanx (FAY-langks) phalanges (fah-LAN-jeez) When a Greek singular noun ends in –oma, form the plural by changing –oma to –omata. carcinoma (KAR-sih-NOH-mah) carcinomata (KAR-sih-NOH-mah-tah) fibroma (fy-BROH-mah) fibromata (FY-broh-MAH-tah) leiomyoma (LIE-oh-my-OH-mah) leiomyomata (LIE-oh-my-OH-mah-tah) When a Greek singular noun ends in –on, form the plural by changing –on to –a. ganglion (GANG-glee-on) ganglia (GANG-glee-ah) mitochondrion (MY-toh-CON-dree-on) mitochondria (MY-toh-CON-dree-ah) ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. 10 Chapter 1 | The Structure of Medical Language Did You Know? When you learn something new, it is always best to learn it the right way the very first time! That is why the spelling (and punctuation) of combining forms, suffixes, and prefixes used in this book are based on those used in medical dictionaries that are the recognized authorities on medical language origin and use. Combining Forms Characteristics of a Combining Form Combining forms have the following characteristics. • A combining form is a word part that is the foundation of a word. • A combining form gives the word its main medical meaning. • A combining form has a root (with medical meaning), a forward slash (to separate the root from the combining vowel), a combining vowel (usually an o, but occasionally an a, i, or y), and a final hyphen (see Figure 1-3 ■). • Most medical words contain a combining form. (Note: Some medical words, such as blood, health, heart, or nurse are from early versions of the English or French languages and do not contain any word parts.) • Sometimes a medical word contains two or more combining forms, one right after the other. cardi/oroot forward slash combining vowel hyphen Figure 1-3 ■ Combining form. A combining form contains a root, forward slash, combining vowel, and hyphen. The hyphen shows that the combining form is a word part, not a complete word. The combining form cardi/o- means heart. Word Alert Learning medical language requires some memorization of combining forms and their medical meanings. Why is this necessary? Because knowing the meaning of the combining form allows you to look at a medical word and already have an idea about its definition. Knowing the meaning of one word part allows you to apply it to the many medical words where it appears. The alternative is having to use a medical dictionary to look up the definition of each new medical word you encounter! Medical Words and Word Parts Medical language contains medical words, and medical words contain word parts. Word parts are the puzzle pieces that, when fit together, build a medical word. There are three different kinds of word parts: combining form, suffix, and prefix. Word Part combining form suffix prefix Meaning the foundation of the word the word ending an optional word beginning ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Here are some tips on how to manage your time and the amount of memorization you need to do as you study medical language. Tip #1: Some combining forms are nearly identical to their medical meanings. When you see combining forms like these, you already know their medical meanings. Combining Form abdomin/oappend/oarteri/ointestin/olaryng/omuscul/othyroid/otonsill/oven/oMedical Meaning abdomen appendix artery intestine larynx (voice box) muscle thyroid gland tonsil vein Tip #2: Some combining forms bring to mind a word you already know. That helps you to remember the medical meaning of combining forms like these. Combining Form arthr/ocardi/oderm/ogastr/omamm/onas/opsych/oRelated Word arthritis cardiac dermatologist gastric mammogram nasal psychiatrist Tip #3: Other combining forms are very different from their medical meanings. Combining forms like these and their medical meanings need to be memorized. Combining Form cholecyst/ocost/oenter/ohepat/ohyster/olapar/oMedical Meaning gallbladder rib intestine liver uterus abdomen Medical Meaning joint heart skin stomach breast nose mind Word Alert Two combining forms can have the same medical meaning. For example, the combining forms enter/o- and intestin/o- both mean intestine. When this occurs in a chapter, there will be a note to remind you. The Structure of Medical Language | Chapter 1 11 ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. 12 Chapter 1 | The Structure of Medical Language Suffixes for Adjective Forms Suffix Meaning Medical Word Example Definition -ac pertaining to cardiac (KAR-dee-ak) pertaining to the heart (cardi/o- means heart) -al pertaining to intestinal (in-TES-tih-nal) pertaining to the intestine (intestin/o- means intestine) -ar pertaining to muscular (MUS-kyoo-lar) pertaining to the muscle (muscul/o- means muscle) -ary pertaining to urinary (YOO-rih-NAIR-ee) pertaining to the urine (urin/o- means urine; urinary tract) -ic pertaining to pelvic (PEL-vik) pertaining to the pelvis (pelv/o- means pelvis) -ine pertaining to uterine (YOO-ter-in) pertaining to the uterus (uter/o- means uterus) -ive pertaining to digestive (dy-JES-tiv) pertaining to digestion (digest/o- means break down food; digest) -ous pertaining to venous (VEE-nus) pertaining to a vein (ven/o- means vein) Suffixes Characteristics of a Suffix Suffixes have the following characteristics. • A suffix is a word part that is at the end of a word. • A suffix modifies or clarifies the medical meaning of the combining form. • A suffix is a single letter or group of letters that begins with a hyphen (see Figure 1-4 ■). • Most medical words contain a suffix (see Note with Combining Forms). Here are some common suffixes. Take a moment to review them and learn their meanings so that you will be ready to use them in medical words. -ac Figure 1-4 ■ Suffix. A suffix begins with a hyphen to show that it is a word part, not a complete word. The suffix -ac means pertaining to. Suffixes for Processes -ation a process; being or urination (YOO-rih-NAY-shun) a process of (making) urine having (urin/o- means urine; urinary system) -ion action; condition digestion (dy-JES-chun) action of break(ing) down food (digest/o- means break down food; digest) -lysis process of breaking hemolysis (hee-MAWL-ih-sis) process of breaking down or down or destroying (hem/o- means blood) destroying blood Suffixes for Diseases and Conditions -ia condition; state; thing pneumonia (noo-MOH-nee-ah) condition of the lung (pneumon/o- means lung; air) -ism process; disease from hypothyroidism disease from the specific cause of a specific cause (HY-poh-THY-royd-izm) deficient thyroid (hormone) (thyroid/o- means thyroid gland) ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. -itis inflammation of; tonsillitis (TAWN-sih-LY-tis) infection of the tonsil infection of (tonsill/o- means tonsil) -megaly enlargement cardiomegaly enlargement of the heart (KAR-dee-oh-MEG-ah-lee) (cardi/o- means heart) -oma tumor; mass neuroma (nyoo-ROH-mah) tumor on a nerve (neur/o- means nerve) -osis condition; abnormal psychosis (sy-KOH-sis) abnormal condition of the mind condition; process (psych/o- means mind) -pathy disease; suffering arthropathy (ar-THRAWP-ah-thee) disease of the joint (arthr/o- means joint) Suffix Meaning Medical Word Example Definition Suffixes for Diagnostic, Medical, and Surgical Procedures -ectomy surgical excision appendectomy surgical excision of the appendix (AP-pen-DEK-toh-mee) (append/o- means appendix) -gram a record or picture mammogram (MAM-oh-gram) a record or picture of the breast (mamm/o- means breast) -graphy process of recording mammography process of recording the breast (mah-MAWG-rah-fee) (mamm/o- means breast) -metry process of measuring spirometry (spih-RAWM-eh-tree) process of measuring the (spir/o- means breathe) breathing -scope instrument used to colonoscope (koh-LAWN-oh-skop) instrument used to examine the examine (colon/o- means colon) colon -scopy process of using an gastroscopy process of using an instrument to instrument to examine (gas-TRAWS-koh-pee) examine the stomach (gastr/o- means stomach) -stomy surgically created colostomy (koh-LAWS-toh-mee) surgically created opening in the opening (col/o- means colon) colon -therapy treatment psychotherapy treatment of the mind (SY-koh-THAIR-ah-pee) (psych/o- means mind) -tomy process of cutting or laparotomy (LAP-ah-RAW-toh-mee) process of making an incision in making an incision (lapar/o- means abdomen) the abdomen Suffixes for Medical Specialties -iatry medical treatment psychiatry (sy-KY-ah-tree) medical treatment for the mind (psych/o- means mind) -ist one who specializes in therapist (THAIR-ah-pist) one who specializes in treatment (therap/o- means treatment) -logy the study of cardiology (KAR-dee-AWL-oh-jee) the study of the heart (cardi/o- means heart) The Structure of Medical Language | Chapter 1 13 ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. 14 Chapter 1 | The Structure of Medical Language Prefixes Characteristics of a Prefix Prefixes have the following characteristics. • A prefix is a word part that is at the beginning of a word. A prefix is an optional word part, and not every word contains a prefix. • A prefix modifies or clarifies the medical meaning of the combining form. • A prefix is a single letter or group of letters that ends with a hyphen (see Figure 1-5 ■). • Occasionally, a medical word has two prefixes, one right after the other. Here are some common prefixes. Take a moment to review them and learn their meanings so that you will be ready to use them in medical words. intraFigure 1-5 ■ Prefix. A prefix ends with a hyphen to show that it is a word part, not a complete word. The prefix intra- means within. Prefixes for Location or Direction Prefix Meaning Medical Word Example Definition endo- innermost; within endotracheal (EN-doh-TRAY-kee-al) pertaining to within the trachea (trache/o- means trachea) epi- upon; above epidermal (EP-ih-DER-mal) pertaining to upon the skin (derm/o- means skin) inter- between intercostal (IN-ter-KAWS-tal) pertaining to between the ribs (cost/o- means rib) intra- within intravenous (IN-trah-VEE-nus) pertaining to within a vein (ven/o- means vein) peri- around pericardial (PAIR-ih-KAR-dee-al) pertaining to around the heart (cardi/o- means heart) post- after; behind postnasal (post-NAY-zal) pertaining to behind the nose (nas/o- means nose) pre- before; in front of premenstrual (pree-MEN-stroo-al) pertaining to before menstruation (menstru/o- means monthly discharge of blood) sub- below; underneath; subcutaneous (SUB-kyoo-TAY-nee-us) pertaining to underneath the skin less than (cutane/o- means skin) trans- across; through transvaginal (trans-VAJ-ih-nal) pertaining to through the vagina (vagin/o- means vagina) ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Prefixes for Amount, Number, or Speed Prefix Meaning Medical Word Example Definition bi- two bilateral (bi-LAT-er-al) pertaining to two sides (later/o- means side) brady- slow bradycardia (BRAD-ee-KAR-dee-ah) condition of a slow heart (card/i- means heart) hemi- one half hemiplegia (HEM-ee-PLEE-jee-ah) condition of one half (of the body) (pleg/o- means paralysis) with paralysis hyper- above; more than hypertension (HY-per-TEN-shun) condition of more than normal normal (tens/o- means pressure) pressure hypo- below; deficient hypothyroidism disease from a specific cause of (HY-poh-THY-royd-izm) deficient thyroid gland (thyroid/o- means thyroid gland) (hormone) mono- one; single mononucleosis abnormal condition of (white (MAWN-oh-noo-klee-OH-sis) blood cells that each have) one (nucle/o- means nucleus) (large) nucleus poly- many; much polyneuritis (PAWL-ee-nyoo-RY-tis) inflammation of many nerves (neur/o- means nerve) quadri- four quadriplegia (KWAH-drih-PLEE-jee-ah) condition of four (limbs) with (pleg/o- means paralysis) paralysis tachy- fast tachycardia (TAK-ih-KAR-dee-ah) condition of a fast heart (card/i- means heart) tri- three trigeminal (try-JEM-ih-nal) pertaining to three (nerve (gemin/o- means set or group) branches in a) group Prefixes for Degree or Quality a- away from; without aspermia (aa-SPER-mee-ah) condition (of being) without sperm (sperm/o- means sperm) an- without; not anesthesia (AN-es-THEE-zee-ah) condition (of being) without sensation (esthes/o- means sensation; feeling) anti- against antibiotic (AN-tee-by-AWT-ik) pertaining to against living organisms (bi/o- means living organisms (such as bacteria) de- reversal of; without dementia (dee-MEN-shee-ah) condition (of being) without a mind (ment/o- means mind) dys- painful; difficult; dysphagia (dis-FAY-jee-ah) condition of painful or difficult eating abnormal (phag/o- means eating; swallowing) and swallowing eu- normal; good euthyroidism process of normal thyroid gland (yoo-THY-royd-izm) (function) (thyroid/o- means thyroid gland) mal- bad; inadequate malnutrition being or having inadequate (MAL-noo-TRISH-un) nourishment (nutri/o- means nourishment) re- again and again respiration (RES-pih-RAY-shun) a process of again and again breathing (spir/o- means breathe) The Structure of Medical Language | Chapter 1 15 ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. 16 Chapter 1 | The Structure of Medical Language cardi/o- + -logy cardi/omeans heart cardi/o- -logy -logy means the study of peri- cardi/o- -al Analyze and Define Medical Words The third skill of medical language involves thinking, analyzing, and understanding. When you analyze something, you break it into smaller pieces that are easier to understand. To analyze a medical word, break it into its word parts. Then you combine the meanings of the word parts to give you the definition of the medical word. Here are the steps for analyzing and defining a medical word. Medical Word with a Combining Form and Suffix Follow these steps to analyze and define a medical word that has a combining form and a suffix. Medical word example: cardiology. Step 1. Divide the medical word into its combining form and suffix. (Note: At this point in your study, you will not be able to look at a medical word and know that it contains a combining form and a suffix. However, as you memorize various word parts and their meanings, you will be able to do this.) combining form suffix Step 2. Define each word part. Step 3. Put the word part meanings in this order: the meaning of the suffix first, followed by the meaning of the combining form. suffix combining form the study of heart Step 4. Add small connecting words, if needed, to make a correct and complete definition of the medical word. Cardiology: The study of (the) heart (and related structures). Medical Word with a Combining Form, Suffix, and Prefix Follow these steps to analyze and define a medical word that has a combining form, suffix, and prefix. Medical word example: pericardial. Step 1. Divide the medical word into its prefix, combining form, and suffix. prefix combining form suffix ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. cardi/omeans heart cardi/o- -al -al means pertaining to periperimeans around Step 3. Put the word part meanings in this order: the meaning of the suffix first, followed by the meaning of the prefix, followed by the meaning of the combining form. suffix prefix combining form pertaining to around heart Step 4. Add small connecting words, if needed, to make a correct and complete definition of the medical word. Pericardial: Pertaining to around the heart. Build Medical Words Medical words are like puzzles, and their word parts are the pieces of the puzzle. To build a medical word, begin with its definition. Select word parts that match that definition, and then put the word part puzzle pieces together in the correct way. Here are the steps for building a medical word. Suffix that Begins with a Consonant Follow these steps to build a medical word when the suffix begins with a consonant. Medical word definition: The study of the heart. Step 1. Select the suffix and combining form whose meanings match the definition of the medical word. suffix combining form Step 2. Define each word part. cardi/omeans heart -logy cardi/o- -logy means the study of cardi/o- -logy Step 2. Change the order of the word parts to put the suffix last. combining form suffix The Structure of Medical Language | Chapter 1 17 ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. 18 Chapter 1 | The Structure of Medical Language cardio logy Suffix that Begins with a Vowel Follow these steps to build a medical word when the suffix begins with a vowel. Medical word definition: Pertaining to the heart. Step 1. Select the suffix and combining form whose meanings match the definition of the medical word. suffix combining form cardi/omeans heart -ac cardi/o- -ac means pertaining to cardi/o- -ac cardi ac Step 3. Delete the forward slash and hyphen from the combining form. Delete the hyphen from the suffix. combining form suffix – cardio logy – Step 2. Change the order of the word parts to put the suffix last. combining form suffix Step 3. Delete the forward slash, combining vowel, and hyphen from the combining form. Delete the hyphen from the suffix. combining form suffix Step 4. Join the two word parts. – cardi ac – Step 4. Join the two word parts. ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Contains a Prefix Follow these steps to build a medical word that contains a prefix. Medical word definition: Pertaining to within the heart. Step 1. Select the suffix, prefix, and combining form whose meanings match the definition of the medical word. suffix prefix combining form cardi/omeans heart -ac cardi/o- -ac means pertaining to intraintrameans within intra- cardi/o- -ac intra cardi ac – /o- – intra cardi ac Step 2. Change the order of the word parts to put the suffix last. prefix combining form suffix Step 3. Delete the hyphen from the prefix. Delete the forward slash, combining vowel, and hyphen from the combining form. Delete the hyphen from the suffix. prefix combining form suffix Step 4. Join the three word parts. The Structure of Medical Language | Chapter 1 19 Word Alert Some medical words contain two or more combining forms. Example: combining form combining form suffix medical word intestin/omeans intestine intestin/o- -al -al means pertaining to gastr/ogastr/omeans stomach gastrointestinal ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. 20 Chapter 1 | The Structure of Medical Language Medical Word Medical Word Pronunciation 1. abdominal (ab-DAWM-ih-nal) 2. appendectomy (AP-pen-DEK-toh-mee) 3. arthritis (ar-THRY-tis) 4. cardiac (KAR-dee-ak) 5. cardiology (KAR-dee-AWL-oh-jee) 6. digestion (dy-JES-chun) 7. gastric (GAS-trik) 8. intestinal (in-TES-tih-nal) 9. intravenous (IN-trah-VEE-nus) 10. laryngitis (LAIR-in-JY-tis) 11. mammography (mah-MAWG-rah-fee) 12. muscular (MUS-kyoo-lar) 13. pneumonia (noo-MOH-nee-ah) 14. psychiatry (sy-KY-ah-tree) 15. therapist (THAIR-ah-pist) 16. tonsillectomy (TAWN-sih-LEK-toh-mee) 17. urinary (YOO-rih-NAIR-ee) Pronounce Medical Words Knowing the definition of a medical word is important, but being able to pronounce the word correctly is equally important. One of the five medical language skills is pronunciation. In each chapter, as you read a medical word (in bold), there is an accompanying “see-and-say” pronunciation, so you can immediately pronounce the word you are learning. These guides are straightforward and easy to use. The syllables in the medical word are separated by hyphens. The primary (main) accented syllable is in all capital letters. The secondary accented syllable is in smaller capital letters. Just say each syllable by following the “see-and-say” pronunciation guide. When you read a medical word and then speak and pronounce it correctly, you are forming an accurate word memory for that medical word. Now use the “see-and-say” pronunciation guides to practice pronouncing common medical words, many of which are presented in this chapter. Pronouncing Medical Words Look at each medical word and its pronunciation guide. Practice pronouncing the word several times. ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Vocabulary Review Here are the word parts presented in this chapter. (They are also used in other chapters as well.) Take time to review them and learn their meanings so that you will be ready to use them in medical words. Combining Forms Combining Form abdomin/oappend/oarteri/oarthr/obi/ocard/icardi/ocholecyst/ocol/ocolon/ocost/ocutane/oderm/odigest/oenter/oesthes/ogastr/ogemin/ohem/ohepat/ohyster/ointestin/olapar/olaryng/olater/oMedical Meaning abdomen appendix artery joint life; living organisms heart heart gallbladder colon colon rib skin skin break down food; digest intestine sensation; feeling stomach set or group blood liver uterus (womb) intestine abdomen larynx (voice box) side mamm/omenstru/oment/omuscul/onas/oneur/onucle/onutri/opelv/ophag/opleg/opneumon/opsych/osperm/ospir/otens/otherap/othyroid/otonsill/otrache/ourin/outer/ovagin/oven/obreast monthly discharge of blood mind muscle nose nerve nucleus nourishment pelvis eating; swallowing paralysis lung; air mind sperm breathe pressure therapy thyroid gland tonsil trachea urine; urinary system uterus (womb) vagina vein Combining Form Medical Meaning Suffixes Suffix -ac -al -ar -ary -ation -ectomy -gram -graphy -ia -iatry -ic Medical Meaning pertaining to pertaining to pertaining to pertaining to a process; being or having surgical excision a record or picture process of recording condition; state; thing medical treatment pertaining to -ine -ion -ism -ist -itis -ive -logy -lysis -megaly -metry -oma pertaining to action; condition process; disease from a specific cause one who specializes in inflammation of; infection of pertaining to the study of process or breaking down or destroying enlargement process of measuring tumor; mass Suffix Medical Meaning The Structure of Medical Language | Chapter 1 21 ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. 22 Chapter 1 | The Structure of Medical Language Prefixes Prefix a- anantibibradydedysendoepieuhemihyperhypointerMedical Meaning away from; without without; not against two slow reversal of; without painful; difficult; abnormal innermost; within upon; above normal; good one half above; more than normal below; deficient between intramalmonoperipolypostprequadriresubtachytranstriwithin bad; inadequate one; single around many; much after; behind before; in front of four again and again below; underneath; less than fast across; through three -osis -ous -pathy -scope condition; abnormal condition; process pertaining to disease; suffering instrument used to examine -scopy -stomy -therapy -tomy process of using an instrument to examine surgically created opening treatment process of cutting or making an incision Suffix Medical Meaning Suffix Medical Meaning Prefix Medical Meaning ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1-6 ■ Computerized patient record (CPR). The computerized patient record can provide immediate access to a patient’s current and previous medical records from within one facility or between related facilities. The computerized patient record has not yet entirely replaced the paper record. The Structure of Medical Language | Chapter 1 23 The Medical Record Many of the medical language skills discussed at the beginning of the chapter are used when dealing with medical documents. Let’s briefly look at some of the more common types of medical documents. The medical record is where healthcare professionals document all care provided to a patient. In the past, the medical record was mainly used to document diseases, treatments, surgeries, etc. Now, the medical record reflects an emphasis on keeping the patient in good health and preventing disease. Most physicians’ office medical records include a checklist that documents preventive care given to the patient (immunizations, routine physical exams, etc.), as well as things the patient should do (limit sun exposure and apply sunscreen, have smoke detectors in the home, use seat belts, do monthly self-examination of the breasts or testicles, secure firearms kept in the home, etc.). The paper medical record has been the traditional form of medical record. Its disadvantages are that only one healthcare professional can access it at a time, it can become lost or damaged, and it can take hours or even days to retrieve a patient’s past medical records that are stored offsite. This delay can compromise the delivery of quality care. Recently, however, more and more offices, hospitals, and other healthcare facilities are converting some or all of their paper medical records to computerized patient records (CPRs) (see Figure 1-6 ■). In these facilities, several healthcare professionals can access the same record at the same time, the record cannot be lost or damaged (because there is always a back-up electronic copy), it takes only seconds to retrieve a patient’s past medical records (because the record is stored in a computer that is on-site or can be accessed electronically in a remote location). medical (MED-ih-kal) medic/o- physician; medicine -al pertaining to WORD BUILDING In the future, it is hoped that an all-encompassing electronic medical record (EMR), electronic patient record (EPR), or electronic health record (EHR) will provide seamless, immediate, and simultaneous access for several ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. 24 Chapter 1 | The Structure of Medical Language healthcare professionals to all parts of a patient’s record regardless of where those parts were created or stored. The federal government set a goal to have the electronic medical record and electronic prescribing of drugs (e-prescribing) done everywhere in health care. Types of Documents in the Medical Record The medical record is a medicolegal record. This means that it not only contains medical documents but that those are also legal documents that can be used in a court of law. The medical record varies in format and content from one facility to the next. Short narrative notes and checklists are used in many physicians’ offices and clinics. These notes usually contain a brief history of the present illness, pertinent past medical or surgical history, a physical examination, a diagnosis, treatments given, and a follow-up plan. Hospitals use more extensive documentation than physicians’ offices. Common documents for a hospitalized patient include the Admission History and Physical Examination (H&P), Operative Report, and Discharge Summary (DS). These documents include standard headings, as described below. Standard Headings in Hospital Admission and Discharge Documents • Chief Complaint (CC) • History of Present Illness (HPI) • Past Medical (and Surgical) History (PMH) • Social History (SH) and Family History (FH) • Review of Systems (ROS) • Physical Examination (PE) • Laboratory and X-Ray Data • Diagnosis (Dx) • Disposition Before patients can be treated at any type of healthcare facility, they must sign a consent to treatment form that gives physicians and other healthcare professionals the right to treat them. Treatment without consent is against the law and could constitute battery (touching another person without his or her consent or causing harm). For a patient who is a minor, the parent or legal guardian signs the consent to treatment form. In an emergency situation, implied consent allows care to be provided until the patient is awake and able to consent or until a legally appropriate person is able to consent for the patient. Prior to a surgery, the physician describes the purpose of the surgery and informs the patient of alternatives, risks, and possible outcomes or complications. Then the patient signs a consent to surgery form. A patient must also sign a form that allows the facility to contact the insurance company to obtain payment for any health care that is provided. Under the federal regulations of HIPAA (the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996), all healthcare settings must provide patients with a statement verifying that their medical record information is secure and is released only to authorized healthcare providers, insurance companies, or healthcare quality monitoring organizations. In addition, physicians write orders and progress notes, nurses write nurses’ notes, and other departments contribute to these notes or use preprinted forms to record information in the medical record. ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. CC chief complaint CPR computerized patient record DS discharge summary Dx diagnosis EHR electronic health record EMR electronic medical record EPR electronic patient record FH family history H&P history and physical (examination) HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (pronounced “HIP-ah”) HPI history of present illness PE physical examination PMH past medical history ROS review of systems SH social history Word Alert ABBREVIATIONS Abbreviations are commonly used in all types of medical documents; however, they can mean different things to different people and their meanings can be misinterpreted. Always verify the meaning of an abbreviation. CC means chief complaint, but it also means cubic centimeter (a measure of volume). CPR means computerized patient record, but it also means cardiopulmonary resuscitation. H&P means history and physical (examination), but the sound-alike abbreviation HNP stands for herniated nucleus pulposus. Abbreviations Abbreviations are commonly used in medical language and understanding their meanings is a part of learning medical language. Each chapter in this book includes a list of commonly used abbreviations. The Structure of Medical Language | Chapter 1 25 ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. 26 Chapter 1 | The Structure of Medical Language paramedic (PAIR-ah-MED-ik) Paramedic contains the prefix para- (apart from) and medic (a shortened form of medical). A paramedic works apart from the medical personnel in healthcare facilities. CAREER FOCUS Meet Erica, a paramedic “I was always interested in health care. EMTs give basic life support. They can do things such as backboarding a patient, splinting, giving oxygen, taking vital signs, and transporting patients to the hospital. Paramedics give advanced life support. We can start intravenous lines, give medications. We can defibrillate, give electrocardiotherapy. It’s hard to describe a typical day, because no day is like any other. We give care to patients with chest pain, shortness of breath, diabetes, seizures, and trauma (obviously auto accidents, but also industrial accidents) and transport them to the hospital. I use medical terminology when I’m writing my run reports. Those reports are medical and legal documents. They can be looked at by lawyers in the future. I always want my reports to look professional and be medically correct.” Paramedics are allied health professionals who respond to emergency calls from the community, treat patients in ambulances, and transport them to the emergency department of the hospital. The paramedic provides medical care in a setting that is apart from a hospital or physician’s office. To see Erica’s complete video profile, visit Medical Terminology Interactive at www.myhealthprofessionskit.com. Select this book, log in, and go to the 1st floor of Pearson General Hospital. Enter the Laboratory, and click on the computer screen. PEARSON Did You Know? Each healthcare facility develops its own list of acceptable abbreviations (that can be used in documents produced in that facility) and a list of unacceptable or “do not use” abbreviations. In addition to that, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) has a list of abbreviations that should not be used because they cause errors. JCAHO’s National Safety Goal states that these abbreviations must appear on a facility’s “Do Not Use” list. The JCAHO list is a short list because it is the minimum required for a facility to be accredited. Some of these “do not use” abbreviations are included in this book because they are still in common use by some healthcare providers, but they are marked with an asterisk (*) and a reminder note. Other “do not use” abbreviations compiled by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) are also marked (.). Finally, some abbreviations (such as the abbreviation SOB, meaning shortness of breath) have an alternate undesirable meaning. Even though many hospitals have removed some or all of these abbreviations from their official list of abbreviations, they still continue to be used and are noted when they are included in a chapter. ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. The Structure of Medical Language | Chapter 1 27 CHAPTER REVIEW EXERCISES Test your knowledge of the chapter by completing these review questions. Use the Answer Key at the end of the book to check your answers. Welcome to Medical Language Matching Exercise Match each word part to its description. The word parts may be used more than once. 1. combining form 2. suffix 3. prefix ______ Begins with a hyphen ______ Contains the main meaning of a medical word ______ Ends with a combining vowel ______ Always positioned at the end of a medical word ______ If present, it is always at the beginning of a medical word ______ When there is no prefix, this is the first part of a medical word True or False Exercise Indicate whether each statement is true or false by writing T or F on the line. 1. ______ The three word parts in medical language are spelling, reading, and Greek. 2. ______ Every medical word contains a prefix. 3. ______ The suffix is the foundation of a medical word. 4. ______ You can form the plural of a Latin singular noun that ends in –a by changing the -a to -ae. 5. ______ A root and a combining vowel together form a medical word. 6. ______ The suffixes -ac and -al both mean pertaining to. 7. ______ All medical words originally come from Latin words. 8. ______ You can increase your chances of success in a healthcare career by learning medical language. Fill in the Blank Exercise 1. Name the three word parts that are used to build medical words. a. _____________________________________ b. _____________________________________ c. _____________________________________ 2. Name the five medical language skills needed for successful communication. a. _____________________________________ b. _____________________________________ c. _____________________________________ d. _____________________________________ e. _____________________________________ 3. Write the two combining forms that have a medical meaning of a. skin _____________________________________ _____________________________________ b. intestine _____________________________________ _____________________________________ c. mind _____________________________________ _____________________________________ 4. Write the prefix that has the opposite medical meaning of a. hypo- _____________________________________ b. epi- _____________________________________ ISBN 1-256-09271-1 c. pre- _____________________________________ Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. 28 Chapter 1 | The Structure of Medical Language Latin Singular Latin Plural Greek Singular Greek Plural Building Medical Words Word Parts Exercise Before you build medical words, review these word parts. Next to each word part, indicate what type it is, and then write its medical meaning. Be sure to check your spelling. The first one has been done for you. Prefix = P Combining Form = CF Suffix = S Word Part Type Medical Meaning Latin and Greek Singular and Plural Nouns Exercise Write the plural form of these Latin or Greek singular nouns. Be sure to check your spelling. The first one has been done for you. 1. vertebra vertebrae 2. bursa _____________________________ 3. petechia _____________________________ 4. ruga _____________________________ 5. bronchus _____________________________ 6. alveolus _____________________________ 7. thrombus _____________________________ 8. nucleus _____________________________ 9. bacterium _____________________________ 10. hilum _____________________________ 11. diverticulum _____________________________ 12. labium _____________________________ 13. ovum _____________________________ 14. testis _____________________________ 15. diagnosis _____________________________ Latin Singular Latin Plural 16. iris _____________________________ 17. epididymis _____________________________ 18. phalanx _____________________________ 19. carcinoma _____________________________ 20. leiomyoma _____________________________ 21. ganglion _____________________________ 22. mitochondrion _____________________________ Greek Singular Greek Plural 1. a- P away from; without 2. abdomin/o- ______ ______________________ 3. -ac ______ ______________________ 4. -al ______ ______________________ 5. an- ______ ______________________ 6. anti- ______ ______________________ 7. append/o- ______ ______________________ 8. -ar ______ ______________________ 9. arteri/o- ______ ______________________ 10. arthr/o- ______ ______________________ 11. -ary ______ ______________________ 12. -ation ______ ______________________ 13. bi- ______ ______________________ 14. bi/o- ______ ______________________ 15. brady- ______ ______________________ 16. card/i- ______ ______________________ 17. cardi/o- ______ ______________________ 18. cholecyst/o- ______ ______________________ 19. col/o- ______ ______________________ 20. colon/o- ______ ______________________ 21. cost/o- ______ ______________________ 22. cutane/o- ______ ______________________ 23. de- ______ ______________________ 24. derm/o- ______ ______________________ 25. digest/o- ______ ______________________ 26. dys- ______ ______________________ 27. -ectomy ______ ______________________ 28. endo- ______ ______________________ 29. enter/o- ______ ______________________ 30. epi- ______ ______________________ 31. esthes/o- ______ ______________________ 32. eu- ______ ______________________ 33. gastr/o- ______ ______________________ 34. gemin/o- ______ ______________________ Word Part Type Medical Meaning ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. 35. -gram ______ ______________________ 36. -graphy ______ ______________________ 37. hemi- ______ ______________________ 38. hem/o- ______ ______________________ 39. hepat/o- ______ ______________________ 40. hyper- ______ ______________________ 41. hypo- ______ ______________________ 42. hyster/o- ______ ______________________ 43. -ia ______ ______________________ 44. -iatry ______ ______________________ 45. -ic ______ ______________________ 46. -ine ______ ______________________ 47. inter- ______ ______________________ 48. intestin/o- ______ ______________________ 49. intra- ______ ______________________ 50. -ion ______ ______________________ 51. -ism ______ ______________________ 52. -ist ______ ______________________ 53. -itis ______ ______________________ 54. -ive ______ ______________________ 55. lapar/o- ______ ______________________ 56. laryng/o- ______ ______________________ 57. later/o- ______ ______________________ 58. -logy ______ ______________________ 59. -lysis ______ ______________________ 60. mal- ______ ______________________ 61. mamm/o- ______ ______________________ 62. -megaly ______ ______________________ 63. menstru/o- ______ ______________________ 64. ment/o- ______ ______________________ 65. -metry ______ ______________________ 66. mono- ______ ______________________ 67. muscul/o- ______ ______________________ 68. nas/o- ______ ______________________ 69. neur/o- ______ ______________________ 70. nucle/o- ______ ______________________ 71. nutri/o- ______ ______________________ 72. -oma ______ ______________________ 73. -osis ______ ______________________ 74. -ous ______ ______________________ 75. -pathy ______ ______________________ 76. pelv/o- ______ ______________________ 77. peri- ______ ______________________ 78. phag/o- ______ ______________________ 79. pleg/o- ______ ______________________ 80. pneumon/o- ______ ______________________ 81. poly- ______ ______________________ 82. post- ______ ______________________ 83. pre- ______ ______________________ 84. psych/o- ______ ______________________ 85. quadri- ______ ______________________ 86. re- ______ ______________________ 87. -scope __


 

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